Conditional sentences are composed of two clauses, the condition and the result, also known as the protasis and the apodosis respectively. The pseudo-syntax for a conditional sentence is:
if <condition> then <result>
In formal logic the condition corresponds to the consequent and the result to the antecedent. In traditional Arabic grammar these two clauses are known as sharṭ (شرط) and jawāb sharṭ (جواب شرط).
In the Quran, the word idhā (إذا) is frequently used as a conditional particle and is usually translated as "when". The pseudo-syntax for this type of temporal conditional sentence is:
when <condition> then <result>
An example may be found in verse (83:30) shown below. The word idhā (إذا) is tagged as a time adverb ẓarf zamān (ظرف زمان) since it is a conditional particle used in a temporal sense:
they winked at one another.
Fig 1. A temporal conditional sentence in verse (83:30).
- Imperative Verbs – the imperative result clause (جواب أمر)