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Verse (2:19), Word 2 - Quranic Grammar


The second word of verse (2:19) is divided into 2 morphological segments. A preposition and noun. The prefixed preposition ka is usually translated as "like" or "as". The indefinite noun is masculine and is in the genitive case (مجرور). The noun's triliteral root is ṣād wāw bā (ص و ب). Together the segments form a preposition phrase known as jār wa majrūr (جار ومجرور).

Chapter (2) sūrat l-baqarah (The Cow)

like a rainstorm
P – prefixed preposition ka
N – genitive masculine indefinite noun
جار ومجرور

Verse (2:19)

The analysis above refers to the nineteenth verse of chapter 2 (sūrat l-baqarah):

Sahih International: Or [it is] like a rainstorm from the sky within which is darkness, thunder and lightning. They put their fingers in their ears against the thunderclaps in dread of death. But Allah is encompassing of the disbelievers.

See Also

8 messages

Mazhar A. Nurani

18th May, 2011

Assalamo Alaikum, Kais

Perhaps this needs further consideration.

Source book parses it as possessive phrase.

Possessive Phrase: كَ Prefixed Exemplifying Noun + اسم المبالغة Hyperbolic Participle/Intensive Adjective resembling participle on فَعِيْلٌ measure:


20th May, 2011


Thanks for this suggestion. This is actually a general improvement we could make throughout the entire website. At present, the letter kaf is only considered to be harf jar, but actually it has other uses (for example, as you suggest here, as an ism).

It would be great if someone might consider (a) providing us with a list of the different usages for the particle kaf, are there more than two? and also (b) it would be great if someone might volunteer going through the website and tagging some other examples. The more examples the better. This will help inshallah when we come to introduce this new use of the particle kaf into the next version of the website.

Maqbool Ahmad

28th November, 2015

If it is at the pattern of فَعِيْلٌ and you substitute ص و ب then it becomes صَوِيْبٌ.

What grammar rules are applied to make صَيِّبٍ . I know كَ makes it مجرور.

Abdul Rahman

29th November, 2015

As a particle “kaaf” has four meanings:

1. Al-tashbeeh التشبيه (similarity, likeness) , and this is the original meaning as in عليّ كالأسد Ali is like a lion.

2. Al-ta’leel التعليل (motivation, justification, explanation). Example: واذكروه كما هدىكم (2:198) ” And remember Him, because (of the fact that) He has guided you…” Our sourcebook (Bahjat) says this: الكاف بمعنى التعليل أي لأّجل أنْ هداكم (Kaaf has the meaning of justification, that is “because of” (or “on account of”) His having guided you.

3. The meaning of على (upon) as in the expression “كن كما أنت “ that is to say, كن ثابتا على ما أنت عليه “abide, or stand, or remain upon what you have been adhering to up to now (i.e. opinion, agreement etc).”

4. Al-tawkeed التوكيد (emphasis, intensification of meaning) and grammatically it is الزائدة “additional, surplus”. Example: ليس كمثله شيء (42:11) “There is nothing like unto Him”. The meaning is ليس مثلَه شيء. The function of the “kaaf” is to emphasize the denial الكاف حرف جار لتأكيد معنى النفي . It turns the ism into majroor in form only . مثل: اسم مجرور لفظا بالكاف منصوب محلا على أنه خبر "ليس" مقدم.

Abdul Rahman

30th November, 2015

Alternatively, such as in 3:49:16 and 5:110:31, the “kaaf” is described as a mabni ism (indeclinable noun) meaning مثل (likeness) in the position of nasb (accusative) being the description (sifah) of the hidden object (maf’ool) presumed to be (another) هيئة , such that the expression كهيئةِ الطير can be read as هيئةَ مثل هيئةِ الطير.

Abdul Rahman

30th November, 2015

Nouns of the form فعيل when derived from verbs where the middle letter is و or ى, become by transposition فَيْعِلٌ and then becomes فَيِّلٌ . So from ص و ب you first get صَيْوِبٌ which then becomes صَيِّبٌ [See Wright, Vol. I, para 242]

Maqbool Ahmad

2nd December, 2015

Sorry. Where do I find Wright, Vol. I ? Is it on the internet?

Abdul Rahman

4th December, 2015

Yes, you can download it from here:


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Language Research Group
University of Leeds