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Verse (2:271), Word 4 - Quranic Grammar


The fourth word of verse (2:271) is divided into 2 morphological segments. A result particle and verb. The result particle fa is usually translated as "then" or "so" and is used to indicate the result of a condition. The perfect verb (فعل ماض) is third person masculine singular. The verb's triliteral root is nūn ʿayn mīm (ن ع م).

Chapter (2) sūrat l-baqarah (The Cow)

then good
RSLT – prefixed result particle
V – 3rd person masculine singular perfect verb
الفاء واقعة في جواب الشرط
فعل ماض

Verse (2:271)

The analysis above refers to the 271st verse of chapter 2 (sūrat l-baqarah):

Sahih International: If you disclose your charitable expenditures, they are good; but if you conceal them and give them to the poor, it is better for you, and He will remove from you some of your misdeeds [thereby]. And Allah , with what you do, is [fully] Acquainted.

See Also

4 messages


12th January, 2013

What Form is this verb? Why is the final vowel long? Or is it a verb at all?

Abdul Rahman

9th February, 2013

This is a very good question, which has highlighted a very important point. Actually this word, ni'imma, consists of two morphological segments. The 'defective' verb "ni'ma" (fi'il jaamid) and the noun "ma", so originally it is "ni'ma ma" but the first "mim" has been assimilited into the second "mim" (idghaam kabeer). Defective verbs like ni'ma, laysa, 'asaa, bi'sa resemble particles in the sense that they are not like ordinary verbs which are associated with time -- past present future. So there is no perfect, imperfect or imperative forms for jaamid verbs, just one form which may be perfect or imperfect or imperative but does not carry the time-related meaning. So I suggest a a new category - فعل جامد or in English "defective" verb.

Abdul Rahman

9th February, 2013

Actually, "defective" would not be a good translation of "jaamid" because it would be confused with "mu3tal" verbs -- verbs which have the letter "waw" or "ya" as a root letter. Possible translations are "inert" and "uninflected". For the moment, the Arabic portion of the analysis can be amnded to read فعل جامد بصيغة الماضي . Any suggestions for a better English rendering?

Mazhar A. Nurani

11th February, 2013

The book "Hidayah" names it as فعل المدح Verb of Praise. The word has three segments; Particle Fa, Verb of Praise-نِعمَ and مَا.

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Language Research Group
University of Leeds